Population ageing is occurring in much of Asia. In Thailand where fertility rates have fallen sharply over the past decades, this process is recent and pronounced. Thailand is particularly fortunate in having a series of nationally representative surveys of the older population that permit determining important trends in the well-being of the older age population and an up-to-date assessment of their current situation. In this report, we examine the demography of ageing in Thailand, explore the health and social and economic well-being of the older population, and describe government policies and programmes related to population ageing. Particular attention is given to differences in relation to age, gender and place of residence (urban or rural).